Apr
27
2007

The Top 10 List of …Reasons Not To Spank Your Child

Prevent Child Abuse New Jersey

Because Kids Don 7 Come with Instructions

 

 

 

The Top 10 List of …Reasons Not To Spank Your Child

  1.      Spanking can damage the parent-child relationship. It erodes the bonds of trust and closeness necessary for the parents to be able to socialize children. The child may feel anxiety, anger, or fear toward the parent (Hirschi, 1969, Azrin, Hake, Holz, & Hutchinson, 1965; Azrin & Holz, 1966)
  2.        Corporal punishment is associated with negative effects on mental health; harsh punishment can lead to adolescent depression and distress. Children who have been spanked may feel less confident and assertive and more humiliated and helpless. Corporal punishment has been associated significantly with adolescents’ depressive symptomology and distress (McLoyd, Jayarante, Ceballo & Borguez, 1994) (Baumrind & Black, 1967; Lasky, 1993).
  3.     Spanking interferes with moral development. Children will learn to act based on whether they get caught as opposed to real, internal morals and values. Spanking also reduces a child’s capacity for empathy.(Hoffman, 1983; Lepper, 1983).
  4.       Spanking is associated with increasing a child’s aggressive behavior. When spanking is used to punish aggressive behaviors the likelihood that children will continue to engage in aversive behaviors increase by 50% (Becker, 1964; Patterson, 1982; Radke-Yarrow, Campbell, & Burton, 1968; Steinmetz, 1979).
  5.        Spanking may lead to child abuse as tempers flare. As many as two thirds of abusive incidents may have begun as attempts to alter children’s behavior with a spanking (Coontz & Martin, 1988; Gil, 1973;Kadushin & Martin, 1981).
  6. Spanking can make a person more likely to act violently with a romantic partner later in life. (Caesar, 1988; Downs, Miller, Testa, & Parek, 1992; Sigelman, Berry, & Wiles; 1984; Straus & Yodanis, 1996; Swinford, DeMaris, Cernkovich, & Giordano, 2000).
  7.      Spanked children are more likely to become aggressive adolescents. Parent’s use of corporal punishment was the strongest predictor of adolescents’ aggression eight years later (P. Cohen, Brook, Cohen, Velez & Garcia, 1990).
  8.        Spanking legitimizes violence and aggression; Children who are spanked are more likely to resort to aggression and violence during conflicts as adults. (Aronfreed, 1969; Bandura & Walters, 1959; Eron et al, 1971; Walters & Grusec, 1977; White & Straus, 1981).
  9. Spanking is associated with an increase in child delinquency, antisocial behavior and the likelihood of adult criminal behavior (Burt, 1925, Gleuck and Gleuck, 1964, Hetherington et al, 1971, McCord and McCord, 1959, Wilson and Hernstein, 1985, Paterson et al, 1992.)
  10. Corporal punishment can convince a child to avoid misbehavior in order to avoid future punishment, but can not, on it’s own teach children the responsibility to behave independently in morally and socially acceptable ways (Hoffman 1983, Grusec, 1983)

References:

Grevin, P. Spare the Child: The Religious Roots of Punishment and Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse. Random House Inc. (1991)

Miller, A: For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence. Farrar, Straus and Giorux. (1990) Complete citations for articles available from PCA-NJ or Gershoff, Elizabeth: 2002, Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic Theoretical Review Psychological Bulletin 128:4 539-579

Tips for Parents #13

Compliments of:

The Parenting Education Resource Center
Prevent Child Abuse – New Jersey
103 Church Street, Suite 210
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
1-800-CHILDREN (1-800-244-5373)
http://www.PreventChildAbuseNJ.org


La lista de las 10 mejores …Razones para no pegarle a su nino

  1. El pegarle a su nino puede afectar la relacion entre el padre y el nino. Corroe los enlaces de confianza y cercania necesarios para que los padres puedan socializar a los ninos. El nino puede sentir ansiedad, coraje o miedo hacia el padre (Hirschi, 1969, Azrin, Hake, Holz, & Hutchinson, 1965; Azrin & Holz, 1966)
  2. El castigo corporal es asociado con efectos negativos sobre la salud mental; el castigo extremadamente fuerte puede conducir a la depresion y afliccion en los adolescentes. Los ninos quienes han sido azotados pueden sentir menos confianza y ser menos asertivos y se pueden sentir humillados y desamparados. El castigo corporal ha sido asociado significativamente con la afliccion y los sintomas de depresion en los adolescentes. McLoyd, Jayarante, Ceballo & Borguez, 1994) (Baumrind & Black, 1967; Lasky, 1993).
  3. Los azotes interfieren con el desarrollo moral. Los ninos aprenderan a comportarse basado en si lo descubren en vez de operar en sus sentido de morales y valores internos y reales. El azotar a su nino reduce su capacidad de empatia. (Hoffman, 1983; Lepper, 1983).
  4. Azotar a los ninos se asocia con aumentar el comportamiento agresivo en los ninos. Cuando los azotes se utilizan para castigar comportamientos agresivos la probabilidad que los ninos continuen a utilizar comportamientos agresivos aumenta por un 50% (Becker, 1964; Patterson, 1982; Radke-Yarrow, Campbell, & Burton, 1968; Steinmetz, 1979).
  5. Los azotes pueden conducir al abuso de los ninos cuando los temperamentos se encolerizan. Hasta dos tercios de incidentes abusivos pueden haber comenzando como intentos de alterar el comportamiento de los ninos con azotes. (Coontz & Martin, 1988; Gil, 1973; Kadushin & Martin, 1981).
  6. Los azotes pueden hacer que la persona tenga mas probabilidad de comportarse violentamente con un companero romantico mas tarde en su vida.. (Caesar, 1988; Downs, Miller, Testa, & Parek, 1992; Sigelman, Berry, & Wiles; 1984; Straus & Yodanis, 1996; Swinford, DeMaris, Cernkovich, & Giordano, 2000).
  7. Los ninos quienes han sido azotado tienen mas probabilidad de convertirse en adolescentes agresivos. El uso de castigo corporal de los padres fue el pronosticador mas fuerte de la agresion de un adolescente ocho anos mas tarde. (P. Cohen, Brook, Cohen, Velez & Garcia, 1990).
  8. Los azotes legitimiza la violencia y la agresion; Los ninos que son azotados son mas probables de recurrir a la agresion y la violencia durante conflictos como adultos. (Aronfreed, 1969; Bandura & Walters, 1959; Eron et al, 1971; Walters & Grusec, 1977; White & Straus, 1981).
  9. Ser azotado se asocia con un aumento en la delincuencia del nino, la conducta antisocial y la probabilidad de la conducta criminal adulta. (Burt, 1925, Gleuck and Gleuck, 1964, Hetherington et al, 1971, McCord and McCord, 1959, Wilson and Hernstein, 1985, Paterson et al, 1992.)
  10. El castigo corporal puede convencer a un nino a evitar las malas conductas para evitar el castigo futuro, pero no puede, por si mismo ensenarle a los ninos la responsabilidad de comportarse independientemente en maneras moralmente y socialmente aceptables (Hoffman 1983, Grusec, 1983).

Referencias:

Grevin, P. Spare the Child: The Religious Roots of Punishment and Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse. Random House Inc. (1991)

Miller, A: For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence. Farrar, Straus and Giorux. (1990) Complete citations for articles available from PCA-NJ or Gershoff, Elizabeth: 2002, Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic Theoretical Review Psychological Bulletin 128:4 539-579

Consejos para padres #13

Obsequio del

Centro de Recursos Educativos para Padres
Prevent Child Abuse – New Jersey
103 Church Street, Suite 210
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
1-800-CHTLDREN (1-800-244-5373)
http://www.PreventChildAbuseNJ.org

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